Exercise for the Spirit

  A 2010 report published in the Journal of Happiness Studies showed that children aged eight to twelve who were more spiritual were also happier. Spirituality in this case was defined not by a child’s religious practices, such as attending church, but by a child’s ability to find meaning and value in his life, and […]

Benefits of Yoga for Children and Families

  STRENGTHEN YOUR CHILD’S BODY, MIND, AND SPIRIT   Your child might feel overwhelmed on a daily basis. Many children today are suffering from a lack of connection to their bodies, to their environment, and to themselves. Our information saturated, hectic, and stimulus rich culture pulls kids in many directions, splitting their attention. For many […]

Measurement Of Work And Power

  Bench Step    The term ergometry refers to the measurement of work output. The word ergometer refers to the appai ratus or device used to measure a specific type of) work. Many types of ergometers are in use today in exercise physiology laboratories ( figure ).       Figure  Illustrations of four different ergometers used […]

Work And Power Defıned

Work Work is defined as the product of force multiplied by distance: Work = force X distance The SI unit for force is Newtons (N), whereas the SI unit for distance is meters (m). Consider the following example to compute work during a weight-lifting exer-cise. If you lifted a 10-kilogram (Kg) weight upward over the […]

Membrane Transport

                    After binding to a receptor on a membrane, the major effect of some hormones is to activate carrier molecules in or near the membrane to increase the movement of substrates or ions from outside to inside the cell. For example, insulin binds to receptors on […]

Hormone-Receptor Interaction

  Hormones are carried by the circulation to all tissues, but they affect only certain tissues. Tissues responsive to specific hormones have specific protein receptors capable of binding those hormones. These protein receptors should not be viewed as static fixtures asso ciated with cells, but like any cellular structures, they are subject to change. The […]

Metabolism and Excretion of Hormones

    The concentration of a hormone in the plasma is also influenced by the rate at which it is metabolized (inactivated) and/or excreted. Inactivation can take place at or near the receptor, or in the liver, the major site for hormone metabolism. In addition, the kidneys can metabolize a variety of hormones, or excrete […]


  The two major homeostatic systems involved in the control and regulation of various functions (cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, etc.) are the nervous and endocrine systems. Both are structured to sense information, organize an appropriate response, and then deliver the mes-sage to the proper organ or tissue. Often the two systems work together to maintain homeostasis, […]

Hormonal Responses to Exercise

As presented in part, the fuels for muscular exercise include muscleglycogen and fat, plasma glucose and free fatty acids, and to a lesser extent, amino acids. These fuels must be provided at an optimal rate for activities as diverse as the 400 meter run and the 26 mile, 385 yard marathon, or performance will suffer. […]